Volleyball as a sport and a means of physical education (part 2)
The complex nature of competitive gaming, for example, in volleyball, creates constantly changing conditions, makes it necessary to assess the situation and choose actions, as a rule, in conditions of limited time. An important factor is that the athlete has a wide arsenal of technical and tactical tools that would make it possible to optimize strategies that ensure the effectiveness of the team’s actions to achieve results in conflict situations.
An important feature of sports games is a large number of competitive actions – game techniques. The need to perform these techniques repeatedly in the process of competitive activity (in one meeting, a series of meetings) to achieve a sports result (winning a meeting, competition) determines the requirement of reliability, stability skills, etc. In volleyball, for example, each mistake is reflected in the result (winning or losing a point).
In team games, several athletes conduct competitive activity, and a lot depends on the coordination of their actions, on the forms of organization of the athletes’ actions in the process of competitive activity in order to achieve victory over the opponent.
For volleyball, a feature is the stepwise nature of the movement of a sports result. In sports with single competitive actions (for example, jumping, throwing), the optimal combination of two factors – motor potential and rational technique – in principle, even with a single attempt, leads to fixing a sports result (jump height, throwing range). In games, this is a kind of first step – “technical and physical”, we also need the organization of the actions of athletes – individual, group and team.
The main criterion for the effectiveness of competitive activity in sports games is victory over an opponent, the number of victories determines the place in the standings of all participants – a sports result. In the long-term sports practice, it turned out that the sports result – an interesting place in the competition – became the criterion for assessing the level of sportsmanship of the team and its members. As statistics show, such a criterion in game sports does not fully reflect the level of athlete skill due to the lack of objective indicators in quantitative terms; with an equally high level of skill of all teams participating in the competition, their different position in the standings (first and last place) is inevitable. Theoretically and with knowingly weak teams, champion countries will be identified, and the players of the winning team will receive the right to receive a high sports rank. It is necessary to establish objective (quantitatively expressed) indicators, on the basis of which it would be possible to successfully plan the sports process
prepare and exercise control over it. Objective indicators in sports games include: an elemental set of game techniques (an aspect of technology); ability to quickly and correctly assess the situation; choose and effectively apply the attacking or defensive action that is optimal for a particular game situation (technical aspect); special qualities and abilities on which the effectiveness of the direct execution of an action depends (requirements for temporal, spatial and power parameters of execution); energy mode of the athlete; sensory-motor control. It is very important to express all this in quantitative terms. The presence of such information serves as the basis for determining the content of training athletes and managing this process, developing model characteristics, programs, plans, standards, etc.
Team and personality – team sports games have differences in the nature of the relationship between the participants in the game: players of one team are partners; players of opposing teams are rivals.
The relationships of the players of one team are determined by the specifics of the sports game, the structure of competitive gaming activity, taking into account their team and the opponents. In this difficult environment, a number of “adversarial structures” can be distinguished for each team on the basis of a “joint adversarial structure” formed by the competitive activity of both rival teams.