HISTORY OF VOLLEYBALL
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams compete on the court, separated by a net, while striving to direct the ball so that it is on the opponent’s court, or so that the player of the defending team makes a mistake. When organizing an attack, it allows players of one team no more than three touches of the ball in a row. There are various types of volleyball: 1) Beach volleyball 2) Mini-volleyball 3) Pionerball 4) Park volleyball.
HISTORY OF VOLLEYBALL
The history of volleyball began in the USA in 1895. The founder of this game was pastor William Morgan, a college teacher, who proposed to call the game “volleyball”, which is translated from English as “flying ball” (from “volley” – to hit on the fly and “ball” – the ball).
In 1897, the first volleyball rules were published in the USA: the size of the court was 7.6 x 15.1 m, the height of the net was 198 cm, the ball was 63.5–68.5 cm in circumference and weighed 340 g, the number of players on the court and the touches of the ball were not It was regulated, the point was counted only with its own submission, if it was unsuccessful, it could be repeated, up to 21 points were played in the game. Over the history of volleyball, his technique, rules and tactics developed. The basic rules, some of which have survived to this day, were drawn up in 1915-1925: since 1917, the game of the game stopped at 15 points, and the height of the net became 243 cm; in 1918, the number of athletes on the site was determined – six; since 1922, more than three touches of the ball have been banned; Well, in 1925, the modern dimensions of the court, the size and weight of the ball were established. These rules were used in Africa, America and Europe, but in Asia until the 1960s, volleyball was played according to its own rules: nine or twelve players on the court, the size of the court was 11×22 m, with no positions between the players during the match.
The next important moment in the history of volleyball is the holding of a nationwide tournament in 1922 – the YMCA Championship was held in Brooklyn with the participation of twenty-three (23) men’s teams. In the same year, the first federation of volleyball and basketball in Czechoslovakia was created in the history of volleyball – the first sports organization in the world curating volleyball.
Beginning in the 1925s, sports federations of the USSR, Bulgaria, Japan, and the United States arose. At the same time, basic technical techniques are being formed, such as serving, passing, striker and block. Based on these basic techniques of playing volleyball, the team’s tactics are developing. In the 30s, insurance and a group bloc began to be used, forwards and deceptive strikes developed. Well, in 1936, at the Congress of the International Handball Federation, held in Stockholm, representatives of Poland proposed the initiative to create a technical committee for volleyball as a component of the handball federation. A commission was created, which was joined by 13 countries from Europe, 5 countries from America and 4 countries from Asia. The members of the commission approved the American rules as minor ones with minor changes: measurements were taken in metric proportions, the ball could be touched with the whole body above the level of the belt, after touching the block the player was forbidden to re-touch, the height of the net for women was set at 224 cm, the feed zone strictly limited.
In 1947, the International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) was created. The development of volleyball went at an accelerated pace. Championships of Europe and the world began to be held, the European Cup is being played. In 1964, volleyball was included in the program of the Olympic Games. Currently, more than 110 countries are members of the FIVB.
A significant contribution to the formation of world volleyball was made by Soviet athletes.